Cascadian Botany logo sword fern sunlight

Cascadian Botany

Native and Invasive Plant Identification
in Portland, Oregon, Cascadia

Contact us to book a visit:
(503) 240-0260

We are open:
11am to 6pm Pacific Time
Monday through Sunday

Services | Pricing & Service Area
Book & Plan an Appointment
About | Scope & Safety | Blog
Links & Resources

horizontal rule leafy1

Junction Lake panorama

Links & Resources

Themed sections with links to:

: Our Social Media :
Instagram & Facebook

: Books :
Online bookstores,
Plant identification books

: Plant Identification Sites :
Native Plant and Weed ID

Oregon general native plant info,
Oregon invasive species and weeds,
Washington general native plant info,
Washington invasive species and weeds,
Pacific Northwest general native plant info,
British Columbia,
Other identification services,
Plant identification apps

: Botanical Education :
Learning botany,
Plant names and general databases,
Non-credit classes,
University courses,
Podcasts and blogs

: Growing Plants :
Gardening with native plants,
Where to buy native plants: non-commercial sites,
Where to buy native plants: commercial sites,
Local organizations and services,

: Ethnobotany, Foraging, and Accessing Nature :
Ethnobotany and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK),
Foraging books,
Foraging permits,
Local areas to see plants: gardens, parks, and hikes,
BIPOC outdoors groups and communities

: Other Creatures and Conditions :
Fungi and lichen,
Rare species and mycoheterotrophs,
Weather and soil

horizontal rule leafy1

: Our Social Media :

horizontal rule leafy1

Please follow us and use hashtag #CascadianBotany
You can also message us through Instagram.


horizontal rule leafy1

: Books :

horizontal rule leafy1


Bookshop LOGO

Please note some of these links are affiliate links through Bookshop, which supports local bookstores. Hundreds of independent bookstores list their wares, and you can purchase them in one spot!
Although they do not have all the titles listed here,
you can view what they do have from my recommended reading list here:
Bookshop: Cascadian Botany's Recommended Reading List

Click here to visit Powell's Books!
Check out our local Portland favorite large bookstore: Powell's Books.
They ship everywhere and have tons of great new and used options!
Please click on the icon above to visit them, also an affiliate link.

horizontal rule 2


Pojar and MacKinnon. 2004.
Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Partners Publishing.
The must-have user-friendly guidebook west of the Cascades!

Hitchcock and Cronquist. 1973.
Flora of the Pacific Northwest.
Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Still the preferred printed dichotomous key for those of us in Oregon and Washington.
A second edition was finally completed in 2018!

Stephen C. Meyers, Thea Jaster, Katie E. Mitchell, and Linda K. Hardison, eds. 2015.
Flora of Oregon. Volume 1: Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Monocots.
Oregon Flora Project, Oregon State University.

Stephen C. Meyers, Thea Jaster, Katie E. Mitchell, Tanya Harvey, and Linda K. Hardison, eds. 2020.
Flora of Oregon. Volume 2: Dicots A-F.

Oregon Flora: we are eagerly awaiting Volume 3!

horizontal rule leafy1

: Plant Identification Sites :
Native Plant and Weed ID

horizontal rule leafy1


Oregon Flora has sections on how to identify plants, choosing native plants for projects, and species range maps.
The Oregon Flora Project have produced the first two volumes entitled Flora of Oregon, as well as an Oregon Wildflowers app.

The Oregon Flora Image Project, hosted by the University of Hawaii

The Native Plant Society of Oregon (NPSO)
NPSO has many local chapters which you can follow or join, and their outings, lectures, and Native Plant Month activities are also very helpful.
You can also follow their Facebook pages.

The Portland Plant List (PPL) (June 2016, Bureau of Planning and Sustainability)
Includes a list each of native plants, nuisance plants, and plants required to be eradicated, for a total of 1553 taxa of native or naturalized vascular plants not intentionally cultivated by humans. This is based on Flora of the Pacific Northwest by Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973), and research about which plants were here before colonization. Many people in Portland follow this species list religiously, and some habitat certification programs require strict conformity to it for specific amounts of area in your yard. However, remember climate change will shift our plant communities from what has historically existed here (and there is a whole other conversation to be had about assisted migration of more Southern species and planning for more drought-tolerant conditions and pathogens and insect pests such as the emerald ash borer), and the PPL list changes from time to time as the data upon which it is based evolves.

Christy, J. A., A. Kimpo, V. Marttala, P. K. Gaddis, and N. L. Christy. 2009.
Urbanizing Flora of Portland, Oregon, 1806-2008.
Native Plant Society of Oregon Occasional Paper 3: 1-319.

Tanya Harvey's Mountain Plants of the Western Cascades of Oregon

Oregon State University's Oregon Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species

horizontal rule 2


Field Guide to Weeds of the Willamette Valley, Oregon Coast, and Eastern Oregon (3 separate documents)

Oregon Public Broadcasting's Silent Invasion (video and photos of invasive species)

Oregon Department of Agriculture's Weeds and WeedMapper

Oregon Department of Agriculture's Oregon Noxious Weed Profiles
"The noxious weed policy and classification system includes Oregon's official noxious weed priority list as designated by the Oregon State Weed Board (OSWB). Oregon Department of Agriculture has compiled profiles of the weeds listed by OSWB. Profiles include information about the weed, images, and locations in Oregon."

Oregon Department of Agriculture's Oregon State Noxious Weed List

Oregon Department of Agriculture. 2011.
Noxious Weed Control.
Salem, OR: Plant Division, Oregon Department of Agriculture.

Oregon State University Extension Service. 2011.
Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook.
Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Extension Service.

West Multnomah Soil & Water Conservation District (WMSWCD) Common Weeds

WMSWCD short brochure on most wanted and common invasive weeds

East Multnomah Soil & Water Conservation District (EMSWCD) weed identification

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services (BES): Invasive Plants
General start page which includes the required eradication list, noxious weed profiles, and much more

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services (BES): Invasive Species

Oregon Invasive Species Hotline
1 (866) INVADER

Oregon iMapInvasives

Oregon's Invasive Species Hub: Worst List
https://www.oregoninvasivespeciescouncil. org/worst-list

West Multnomah Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) Treatment Species List (2016)

Worst Weeds of the Gorge: A Guide for Early Detection and Rapid Response in the Columbia River Gorge

4-County Cooperative Weed Management Area in Oregon and Washington

horizontal rule 2


University of Washington Burke Herbarium Image Collection and Identification Keys

Washington Native Plant Society

Native Plant Guide: Create your own native plant landscape (King County, WA)

horizontal rule 2


Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board (includes weed identification, classes of weeds, safe disposal, and laws)

Clark County Noxious Weed List (2020)

Report Noxious Weed Concern in Clark County, WA

Noxious weeds in King County, Washington

horizontal rule 2


Paul Slichter's Flora and Fauna Northwest

Wildflower Search
Great site to get concise species lists and images of plants, mosses, liverworts, and lichen. Many search options are available; this link takes you to the handy trails search function with lots of Oregon and Washington locales (also forming a nice list to get ideas for hikes): Elev=&Coordinates=&PlantName=

Northwest Wildflowers Bloom Status Map for Oregon & Washington

Oregon Wildflowers Locations

Northwest Native Plant Database

USDA Forest Service: Threatened, Endangered and Sensitive Plants

Edward C. Jensen. 2020.
Trees to Know in Oregon and Washington.
Oregon State University Press.

Pacific Northwest Wildflowers (by author Mark Turner of Turner Photographics).
While this is a commercial site ostensibly for selling photographs, it's almost 17,000 images form a great visual database:

Mark Turner and Phyllis Gustafson. 2006.
Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest.
Timber Press.

Ellen Kuhlmann and Mark Turner. 2014.
Trees and Shrubs of the Pacific Northwest.
Timber Press.

horizontal rule 2


E-Flora BC (Electronic Atlas of The Flora of British Columbia):

Roberta Parish, Ray Coupe, and Dennis Lloyd. 2018.
Plants of Inland Northwest and Southern Interior British Columbia.
Publishing Partners.

horizontal rule 2


CalFlora shows what grows where, a native planting guide, and allows searches for type of plant and for uploading and viewing observations. They also have their own app.

UC Berkeley's CalPhotos

California's Jepson Herbaria

The Jepson Herbarium eflora

Bruce G. Baldwin, Douglas Goldman, David J Keil, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, and Dieter Wilken (Editors). 2012.
The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California Second Edition
University of California Press.
The 1,600-page tome all the California botanists use (and then some), which contains dichotomous keys.

horizontal rule 2


If an ingestion or dermal reaction has occurred in a human or animal, and an identity is needed for Poison Control or emergency services, post clear photos and unabbreviated location to the volunteer experts at:
Poisons help; Emergency Identifications for Mushrooms and Plants (Facebook page)

Oregon State University Herbarium's Plant/Weed Identification (mail-in or email service)

For a non-emergency single plant identification, it is best to post a photo to one of the online identification forums. You must spell out your location without abbreviations, such as: Portland, Oregon, USA.
The best, no-nonsense one is:
Plant Identification (Facebook page)

If you want to discuss anything about it other than its identification, one of the better groups which allows that is:
Plant Identification and Discussion (Facebook page)

These Portland maps are excellent reference sources which reveal the identity of any street tree in parking/median strips, and most park trees! You can even search for specific types of trees if you want to see what they look like in-situ. This is also useful for finding trees blooming, for example cherry trees in spring or trees with certain resplendent autumn colors, or to ask the residents if you are looking to harvest fruit, leaves, or seeds.
Portland Street Tree inventory map
Portland Park Tree inventory map

For locating some true champion trees of special significance within the Portland urban area, check out:
PP&R Heritage Tree Program Guidebook

horizontal rule 2


Smartphone apps are fairly good for common plants in bloom, but can produce misleading results and are still unreliable. The recognition technology is rapidly developing, and the sheer volume of data sets being generated is astounding. I predict that they will be much more reliable in a few years. However, there will always be a need for trained botanists and naturalists to verify these results. The following have the best reputations as being the most accurate or locally relevant.

iNaturalist is essentially a giant citizen science project with data available for further botanical research. Upload your photos and the recognition algorithm will make suggested identifications, and other users, often experts and authors on specific plant groups, will also check their identification. It works best with wild (uncultivated) species. Some people like to use it for nature journaling, BioBlitz, and class activities. There is also an extensive desktop site which has greater functionality.

While you are thinking about iNat, consider participating in some of their local citizen science projects, like this one on their desktop site about Western red cedar dieback. Upload your observations for scientists to better understand and map this emerging issue from thousands of user-collected data points.

Seek A separate photo ID app but also run by iNaturalist using the same recognition algorithms which has received good reviews for accuracy.

Oregon Wildflowers
While this is unfortunately not a free app, it has been developed and curated by the botanists of the Oregon Flora Project. It allows searches by location, type of plant, flower and leaf characteristics, size, and habitat. 1289 species of wildflowers, shrubs, and vines.

Oregon Wildflower Search
This free app allows you to search by location and plant characteristic.
4018 species, of which 2461 are wildflowers.
This same developer has separate apps for Washington (below), Mount Rainier and Olympic National Parks, as well as for British Columbia.

Washington Wildflowers
Also unfortunately not a free app, it has been developed and curated by the botanists of the University of Washington Herbarium at the Burke Museum in Seattle. It allows searches by location, type of plant, flower and leaf characteristics, size, and habitat. 1028 species of wildflowers, shrubs, and vines.

Washington Wildflower Search
This free app allows you to search by location and plant characteristic.
3485 species, of which 1905 are wildflowers.

horizontal rule leafy1

: Botanical Education :

horizontal rule leafy1


Henk Beentje (Author) and Juliet Williamson (Illustrator). 2016.
The Kew Plant Glossary: An Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms - Second Edition.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Thomas J. Elpel. 2013
Botany in a Day: The Patterns Method of Plant Identification.
HOPS Press.

Do not be fooled by this title! This is a serious and very detailed adult plant anatomy coloring book.
Paul Young. 1982.
Botany Coloring Book.
Collins Reference.

James G. Harris and Melinda Woolf Harris. 2001.
Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary.
Spring Lake Publishing.

horizontal rule 2


The Biota of North America Program: North American Vascular Flora

PLANTS Database (Plant List of Accepted Nomenclature, Taxonomy, and Symbols)

Kew's International Plant Names Index (IPNI)

The Plant List
A working list of all known plant species

Audubon Society's native plants database

horizontal rule 2


BARK: Defending and Restoring Mount Hood (advocacy, Ecology Club, and Bark About hikes):

Cascadia Wild offers paid identification and other classes

Hoyt Arboretum leads paid classes on plant identification and appreciation

WMSWCD (West Multnomah Soil & Water Conservation District) Adult Education and Outreach:

EMSWCD (East Multnomah Soil & Water Conservation District) Free Workshops and Events including: beneficial insects and pollinators, urban weeds, naturescaping, native and edible plants, and rain gardens

Wild Food Adventures foraging and cooking classes (John Kallas)

The Arctos School of Herbal and Botanical Studies (Missy Rohs and Gradey Proctor)

The Elderberry School of Botanical Medicine (online and outdoor classes for herbal medicine)

Columbines School of Botanic Studies (Eugene, OR)

Vital Ways Herbal School (Herbalist Certificate Programs, Free Community Clinic, and Herbal Apothecary)

Jennie Cramer and Jody Einerson. 2011.
From Salmonberry to Sagebrush: Exploring Oregon's Native Plants, An ecoregional curriculum for Grades 9-12.
Institute for Applied Ecology.

horizontal rule 2


Portland State University
This was my favorite botany class (taught by Dr. Tobias Policha at the time)
Bi 435: Plant Systematics

Mount Hood Community College has two Forest Botany classes
NR230 (UG18) 01 and 02: Forest Botany
General Biology III: Botany of the Northwest

Portland Community College
BI 202 Botany: An Introduction to the Plant Kingdom

Clark College in Vancouver, WA
BIOL 224: Flowering Plants of The Pacific Northwest

horizontal rule 2


Irreverent and opinionated diatribes about plants, ecology, and life:
Crime Pays but Botany Doesn't

In Defense of Plants

horizontal rule leafy1

: Growing Plants :

horizontal rule leafy1


Backyard Habitat Certification Program
An excellent program if you want to dive deeper!
Their program costs are subsidized by various community partnerships, and they rely on a lot of volunteer labor. They also have (sometimes virtual) open garden tours. They tend to have a backlog / long waitlist.

Oregon State University (OSU) Herbarium's
Gardening with Oregon Native Plants West of the Cascades
by Linda McMahan

OSU Extension's Master Gardener training

OSU Master Gardeners can answer gardening and pest management questions when you fill out their form and upload images
Leave a voicemail: (503) 821-1115

Arthur R. Kruckeberg and Linda Chalker-Scott. 2019.
Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest.
University of Washington Press.

Oregon Flora: Gardening with Natives Plants
Contains brief descriptions and growing conditions of over 200 plants

The Meadowscaping Handbook (WMSWCD)

Metro's Native plants for Willamette Valley yards
Also found here:

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services (BES): Native Plants

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services (BES): GardenSmart Oregon: A Guide to non-invasive plants

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services (BES): Green Street Stewards information on maintaining bioswales

Gardening with Native Plants in the Southern Willamette Valley (PDF booklets)

Emerald Chapter NPSO. 2011.
Native Trees in Our Gardens: A Guide for the Willamette Valley. NativeTrees-for-Our-Garden-Willamette-Valley-NPSO.pdf

Garden Wise: Non-Invasive Plants for Your Garden: Western Washington Guide.
Recommends alternative species to invasive plants, but does NOT stick to strictly native species.

horizontal rule 2



EMSWCD Virtual Native Plant Swap Facebook group

Clark Conservation District plant sale
Order in December for February pickup

SWNI Westside Watersheds Resource Center online Native Plant Swap message board

Jackson Bottom Wetlands

Tualatin Soil and Water Conservation District

Tryon Creek Watershed Council

Portland Audubon Society

Friends of Baltimore Woods

Portland Parks & Recreation's Urban Forestry
They periodically offer free yard trees for Portlanders (only a few giant native species are offered, but wonderful if you have room!):

Native Seed Network

Directories, native plant nursery finder, regional plant lists, community service providers, how-to tutorials

horizontal rule 2


Bosky Dell! (West Linn, OR)
A stroll through these wonderfully landscaped grounds is pure delight.

Sauvie Island Natives
They even have a short nature walk adjacent to them which you can peruse when they are writing up your receipt. Not to mention a pond with Wolffia!

Echo Valley Natives (Sandy, OR)

Humble Roots Farm & Nursery LLC (Mosier, OR in the Columbia River Gorge)

SymbiOp Garden Shop

Birds and Bees (Black and woman-owned nursery)
Not all natives but a nice compact selection of them

The Equitable Giving Circle Plant Exchange:
Where White Folks Gift Plants to BIPOC Folks in The Portland Area

Maple Twig Medicinals
Herbal seedlings; edible, medicinal, and pollinator-friendly gardening consultations; and garden resource sharing

Portland Nursery
Choose carefully as they carry lots of non-natives and hybrids/cultivars which might not be the best choice for pollinators

horizontal rule 2


Community gardens in Portland

Growing Gardens
They build garden beds and provide starts for low-income folks

Portland Fruit Tree Project
Harvesting, pruning and tree care workshops, coaching sessions

Sound Native Plants
A nursery based out of Olympia, but also has field crews in Vancouver and Portland who do consulting and installations

Plant care consultations, identification, and advice about indoor plants from a local Black-owned business

Mudbone Grown
"We are farmers and community health workers. We can help you build your personal garden, teach gardening classes or do landscaping. Mudbone Grown believes in creating kinship, cultural pride and self-sufficiency through the cultivation of land ownership and land use. We are in the business of growing food, community health, business, and community culture around delivery of the triple bottom line to historically absent or barriered communities."

Come Thru Market
May through October incubator market centering Black and Indigenous Farmers and Makers; their "Farmer Training Program supports beginning farmers of color in Portland in building their farmers market readiness and success. This program is specifically designed for people of color, including immigrants and refugees."

Treecology (arborists)

horizontal rule 2


Tool libraries! These are great neighborhood resources which let you check out tools for free.
North Portland Tool Library
Northeast Portland Tool Library

Hori hori
Arbor saw
Gardening gloves
Pots and soil and fertilizer

J&K Partners: teen power siblings / entrepreneurs Jaylen and Kyla Palmer make raised cedar garden beds

horizontal rule 2


Teen Nature Team (TNT)
A FREE nature program for middle school students.
Formerly known as GRUNT (Greenspaces Restoration and Urban Naturalist Team).

"The TALON Program is Audubon Society of Portland's paid training and employment program for young adults age 16-20 that fosters careers in conservation, environmental education and trails. Focused on recruiting young people of color and of diverse backgrounds from Portland, Gresham, and Clackamas. Saturday Trainings from April-June focused on Leadership, Environmental Education and Environmental Justice. Summer Job (after completion of training program)."

Northwest Youth Corps
"An education-based, work experience modeled after the historic Civilian Conservation Corps of the 1930's" with internships in Oregon, Washington, Northern California, and Idaho.

The Forest Park Conservancy (FPC) runs the Green Jobs Training and Internship Program
"(F)or young adults (18-24 years old) who are current or past participants of the Green Workforce Academy Collective; and Tualatin River Keepers' Green Jobs Training Program."

"Verde serves communities by building environmental wealth through Social Enterprise, Outreach and Advocacy."

Verde Builds
"Verde Builds conceives designs and implements environmental infrastructure projects; Parks, Green Urban Infrastructure, Renewable Energy, and Energy Efficiency."

horizontal rule leafy1

: Ethnobotany, Foraging, and Accessing Nature :

horizontal rule leafy1


BRIT Native American Ethnobotany Database

Daniel E. Moerman. 1998.
Native American Ethnobotany.
Timber Press.

Robin Wall-Kimmerer. 2015.
Braiding Sweetgrass.
Milkweed Editions.

M. Kat Anderson. 2013.
Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California's Natural Resources.
University of California Press.

Robert T. Boyd. 2022.
Indians, Fire, and the Land in the Pacific Northwest.
Oregon State University Press.
Book link and preview:

Nancy Turner has written and contributed to many amazing publications about the ethnobotany of peoples of the Pacific Northwest in her long research career in close association with Native people of the Pacific Northwest, with a focus on British Columbia. Here are just a few examples:

Harriet V. Kuhnlein and Nancy J. Turner. 1991.
Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use.
Gordon And Breach Publishers.

Douglas E. Deur and Nancy J. Turner (Editors). 2005.
Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America.
University of Washington Press.

Nancy J. Turner. 2006.
Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples.
Royal British Columbia Museum.

Nancy J. Turner. 2007.
Food Plants of Interior First Peoples.
Royal British Columbia Museum.

Nancy J. Turner. 2014.
Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America.
McGill-Queen's Indigenous and Northern Studies (Number 74).

Nancy J. Turner (Editor). 2020.
Plants, People, and Places, 96: The Roles of Ethnobotany and Ethnoecology in Indigenous Peoples' Land Rights in Canada and Beyond.
McGill-Queen's University Press.

horizontal rule 2


Douglas Deur. 2014.
Pacific Northwest Foraging: 120 Wild and Flavorful Edibles from Alaska Blueberries to Wild Hazelnuts.
Timber Press (OR).

Scott Kloos. 2017.
Pacific Northwest Medicinal Plants: Identify, Harvest, and Use 120 Wild Herbs for Health and Wellness.
Timber Press (OR).

horizontal rule 2


Forest Product Permits for Mount Hood National Forest

Permits for harvesting forest products in NW Oregon
Oregon Department of Forestry NWOA Special Forest Products for Personal Use
(...which uses this map):

Free Huckleberry permits for Gifford Pinchot National Forest, WA (personal use)

Other forest products like mushrooms, bark, cones, beargrass, salal, and ferns in the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, WA (personal use)

horizontal rule 2


Native Gathering Garden at Cully Park in Portland (ethnobotanical garden in progress)

In October, Oxbow Regional Park in Gresham hosts Salmon Homecoming, a "two-day event [which] includes: Indigenous storytelling, tea preparation, drumming, a Salmon Bake, and native plant walks introducing people to Indigenous perspectives on plants, animals, and water."

Vancouver Land Bridge (WA), including an Ethnobotanical Walkway, part of the Confluence Project
"Connecting people to the history, living cultures, and ecology of the Columbia River system through Indigenous voices."

EMSWCD: Naturescaped Yard Tour

EMSWCD Virtual Yard Tour Facebook Group

Audubon Society of Portland Sanctuary Botanical Signs Interpretive Guide
Brief descriptions of native plants within the Audubon Sanctuary area in Portland.

Oregon Hikers: wildflower hikes

Oregon Hikers: universal access hikes

Oregon Hikers: public transportation options to trails

Northwest Hiker (great site for hike descriptions in the Northwest)

Here are some revered natural areas with featured plants which have huge cultural significance as First Nations food plants, which are short walks or hikes without huge elevation gains near the Portland area, where other native plants with ethnobotanical and ecological significance can readily be found, and are especially resplendent in Springtime:

Camassia Natural Area / Preserve in West Linn, OR

Canemah Bluff Nature Park in Oregon City, OR

Camas Lily Fields near Round Lake in Camas, WA
Another map to the Camas fields is here, although there are plenty of options of where to hike that do not follow the depicted yellow line:

Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge in Washington
They host a free Bird Festival in October that usually features an ethnobotany hike, canoe paddling, a salmon bake, birdwatching, and interpretation about cultural heritage in the Cathlapotle Chinookan plank house near the site of historic settlements wiped out by illness brought by colonization. The trail behind the plankhouse can lead you past giant Oregon white oaks to wetlands which feature an important first food, Wapato (broad-leaf arrowhead, Sagittaria latifolia). Wapato populations have been greatly reduced by watershed and land use changes, and lack of human harvesting, usually done by women. Without the churning brought by their presence in the water, wapato has declined dramatically.
An article published by the Confluence Project about wapato:

Wapato Greenway Loop Hike (Sauvie Island, OR)
Another place to consistently view wapato (close to the trailhead) and giant Oregon white oaks on this flat loop trail with a dock on the river midway through. As of May 2022, you still do not need to pay to park there, unlike most other natural areas of the island. Check current regulations. do=park.profile&parkId=218

horizontal rule 2


PDX People of Color Outdoors
"Where black, indigenous and all people of color can enjoy nature in a caring community."
Facebook group:

Wild Diversity
"Wild Diversity helps to create a personal connection to the outdoors for Black, Indigenous, all People of Color (BIPOC) & the LGBTQ+ communities, through outdoor adventures and education. Wild Diversity is a nonprofit organization that aims to help create a personal connection to the outdoors for Black, Indigenous, all People of Color (BIPOC) & the LGBTQ2S+ communities, through outdoor adventures and education."

Outdoor Asian (nationwide with chapters in OR, WA, CO, VA, VT, and L.A.)
"The mission of Outdoor Asian is to build a diverse and inclusive community of Asian & Pacific Islanders in the outdoors."

Soul River / Love is King
Soul River connects inner city youth to veterans for access to the outdoors and environmental justice.
"We believe that the freedom to roam in nature is a basic human right. Love is king squashes the fear in the outdoors and provides equitable access and resolute safety to ensure an enriching and exhilarating experience in nature. It's our moral obligation to take action to ensure that people of color are guaranteed freedom to roam in nature with the assurance of a welcoming and safe experience in the outdoors: recreating, hunting, fishing and in backcountry wilderness, public lands and urban parks. ...our humanitarian obligation through compassion, responsibility, inclusion and equal opportunity [is] to ensure that People of Color have guaranteed access and a safe experiences in the outdoors."

horizontal rule leafy1

: Other Creatures and Conditions :

horizontal rule leafy1


Pollinator Plants & Bloom Periods for West Multnomah County & Portland Metro Area WMSWCD_PollBloomChart_interactive_4.2018.pdf

Pollinator Plants: Maritime Northwest Region

Locally Native Food Plants for Native Birds in Urban and Suburban Habitats of the Willamette Valley, Oregon.
Compiled by B. Newhouse.

Naturescaping for Hummingbirds and Butterflies (quick species brochure)

Portland Nursery: Attract Hummingbirds

Portland Nursery: Attracting Butterflies

Oregon Bee Project

Oregon Bee Atlas

PNW Bumble Bee Atlas

Niall Dunne. Getting to Know Our Native Northwest Bees

Pollinator Parkways (converting your parking strip for habitat)

horizontal rule 2

FUNGI and LICHEN (not plants!)

Noah Siegel and Christian Schwarz. 2016.
Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fungi of Coastal Northern California.
Ten Speed Press.

This is the one myco-tome to rule them all:
David Arora. 1986.
Mushrooms Demystified.
Ten Speed Press.

This is the pocket field guide version of Mushrooms Demystified, massively abridged - but not short on comedic interludes:
David Arora. 1991.
All That the Rain Promises and More: A Hip Pocket Guide to Western Mushrooms.
Ten Speed Press.

What can I say? I like lichens! They are not plants, but a community of organisms living and reproducing in such close association with each other that they are named as one species. Once thought to be a fungus (the mycobiont) which provides more surface area to gather moisture and nutrients, and a photosynthesizing cyanobacteria or algal partner (the photobiont) fixing atmospheric carbon into carbohydrates, it is now know that there is usually at least a third partner in the form of a yeast, too. It's complicated!
Bruce McCun. 2009.
Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest, Second Edition.
Oregon State University Press.

horizontal rule 2


Threatened, Endangered, and Proposed Species, rare species, imperiled, vulnerable, and sensitive taxa (Region 6 Forest Service, Oregon/Washington BLM, Federal)

An amazing source which I highly recommend about Pacific NW mycoheterotrophic plants and the fungi they are in symbiotic relationships with:
Wilbur L. Bluhm. 2007.
The Ericaceae of the Pacific Northwest, Part V.
Journal American Rhododendron Society, Volume 61, Number 2. Salem, Oregon.

horizontal rule 2


First and last frost dates from Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University (OCS)

Soil testing resources for nutrients, pH, and contaminants from EMSWCD

horizontal rule leafy1

green huckleberry leaves and blue huckleberries

Cascadian Botany
P.O. Box 17656
Portland, OR 97217-0656

(503) 240-0260

11am to 6pm Pacific Time
Monday through Sunday
cascadianbotany (at)

Services | Pricing & Service Area
Book & Plan an Appointment
About | Scope & Safety | Blog
Links & Resources

horizontal rule leafy1


Website created by Erica Skadsen on 2 February 2022
©Organic LLC dba Cascadian Botany 2022